Investigators from the DA's office looking into Ruben Cantu's
wrongful execution seem to have already made up their minds that
witnesses, who happen to be ex-cons, are "liars" and anyone,
such as Cantu's surviving family, who bring a wrongful execution suit
against SAPD, the DA's office, and/or TDCJ are "money-grubbing...bastards".
You can see this bias against those from the criminalized
classes all the time. It was present in the Rodney Reed trial and many others.
Certain groups, such as young black men and young, poor Latinos, are
incarcerated at much higher rates than other segments of the population.
If, therefore, you are a young Black or Latino man, like Reed or Cantu,
your friends and personal contacts, the only people usually
who can testify as to your whereabouts or facts concerning your personal life,
such as the existence of a sexual relationship, are probably going to be
young Black and Latino men, and because of the high incarceration rates,
they are more likely to have criminal records. This itself, whether
or not it is related to the crime or relevant in any way, automatically
discredits them and makes them bad witnesses.
Therefore, accused people from these groups are more likely to be
impeded in their ability to provide "believable" witnesses than
middle-class whites in both the trial and the sentencing
phases before the trial court. This is just another way racism
is a decisive factor in who becomes a victim of the criminal justice
system in the US today.
Candid phone calls cast doubt on Cantu review
Investigators are heard mocking the claim of wrongful execution, but DA
denies any bias
By LISE OLSEN and MARO ROBBINS
Copyright 2006 Houston Chronicle AND San Antonio Express-News
SAN ANTONIO - The Bexar County district attorney's investigation into a
possibly wrongful execution had barely started earlier this year, but
DA investigators were scoffing at the three witnesses who contend Texas
an innocent man named Ruben Cantu to his death.
"They're lying. They're all lying, and they know they're lying," Mike
the senior DA investigator, told the retired sergeant who drove the
investigation against Cantu and whose actions, along with other
that case, are under review by the DA's office.
That was in February, before DA investigators had spoken with two of
witnesses who say Cantu was innocent. By March, another top
forecasting the outcome:
"It's going to go forward with the fact that it was justified and
was correct, and that's the way it is," James Moore, one of the primary
investigators on the case, told Bill Ewell, the retired sergeant, on a
routinely recorded phone line March 7.
Obtained through a public-records request, these recorded conversations
window into one of the highest-profile and politically polarizing
investigations under way in Texas, a review of allegations that the
a mistake when it executed Cantu for a 1984 robbery and murder.
Both DA investigators ridicule the case and openly mock the notion that
might have been innocent. They describe the witnesses as liars and
one dismisses the possibility of a future wrongful-execution lawsuit as
Together, the recorded statements stand in contrast to public
the Bexar County DA's Office will fully and fairly examine assertions
Cantu played no part in the 1984 robbery that left one man dead and
bleeding from nearly a dozen wounds.
A spokesman for District Attorney Susan Reed characterized the
as harmless "shop talk" and speculation, sprinkled with the salty
tough cops. First Assistant District Attorney Cliff Herberg said any
about the case are natural, because two of the witness who vouch for
ex-convicts and liars.
Herberg said the investigators did not disclose any confidential
or violate ethical rules and would not be disciplined. Yet, he did say
regretted the remarks had been made on a publicly recorded telephone
because they could imply that his office had "prejudged the case."
"We want people to have confidence in the integrity of the
obviously does not help that," Herberg said. "But all of the people
involved are professionals ... and they will do the job that needs to
to the best of their ability regardless of what their personal opinions
Several ethicists and lawyers asked to review the information are more
"I do think (the DA) needs to determine whether or not the lead
have done a good job, based on these phone calls. Because it sounds to
this important team has prejudged the case," said Linda Eads, an
former prosecutor who is chairwoman of the professional disciplinary
committee for the State Bar of Texas.
Investigators Beers and Moore work under the direction of Herberg and
attorneys in the DA's office. Through Herberg, both refused to comment
stressed they had done nothing improper. Herberg quoted Moore as
"There is no conspiracy by us to cover up any actions by anybody."
through an attorney, also declined to comment.
At the time of the conversations, Ewell served as police chief for the
East Independent School District, which routinely records calls on its
police-department phone line. Ewell, who is now retired from the school
district as well as the San Antonio Police Department, is not the
any criminal investigation, Herberg said, though the actions of
involved in the Cantu case are under review.
'They're all lying'
In 1985, it was Ewell and his detectives who, on the third attempt,
the key evidence against Cantu, an eyewitness identification from the
surviving victim of the robbery, a witness who now says police
to identify Cantu.
Reed reopened the case in December after the Houston Chronicle
wrongful-execution claims made by the shooting victim, along with
convicted co-defendant and a potential alibi witness who says Cantu was
Waco stealing cars about the time of the murder.
Reed testified in June that she hadn't formed any conclusions, but
earlier, her senior investigator already had given his opinion.
"They're all lying," said Beers, the DA's senior investigator, in that
February phone conversation.
"Yeah, I think so. I mean I know so," Ewell replied. "But, I mean, I
DA knows that."
"Oh yeah," Beers assured him. "All they're just trying to show is that
case was handled ethically and it was done correctly."
A month later, Moore, the head investigator in the DA's
section, gave Ewell information and advice.
In one conversation, Moore, who informally interviewed Cantu's
David Garza, dismissed Garza with an expletive. In another call, he
the investigation would prove everything was "justified" and "correct."
In an interview, Herberg, the first assistant district attorney, said
understood Moore's dislike of Garza, a convicted felon who through the
has flip-flopped about what happened the night of the murder. But
Moore's "forward looking" and "optimistic" prediction about the case
premature and did not reflect his bosses' views.
"We're not ready to make that kind of statement," Herberg said.
Legal experts and attorneys for the witnesses have challenged the DA's
objectivity in the case because in her previous job as judge, Reed
of Cantu's appeals and set his execution date. But no one has
questioned the staff's conduct in the case.
Beers is a former motorcycle cop and mayoral driver who joined the SAPD
1969, two years after Ewell. The former colleagues occasionally lunch
together, according to the taped conversations.
Five days after his formal interview with the DA's office about the
execution, Ewell invited Beers to lunch. Ewell told his friend he
see what you've heard."
Beers oversees all DA investigators but has played only a minor role in
Cantu review — retrieving some documents — and would know only what he
the newspaper or heard around the office, according to Herberg. Still,
Ewell worried aloud about whether the Cantu case might later result in
wrongful-death lawsuit, Beers replied:
"That just tells me a whole lot about people like that. Y'know, just
money-hungry sorry bastards."
Police not suspects
Moore had been the one who formally interviewed Ewell for the Cantu
investigation Feb. 1. After that, Moore talked with Ewell on the phone
On March 28, Ewell had a question for Moore.
"Am I being investigated, or what are we doing here? That's, that's my
concern," Ewell said. "Does the DA's office think that I'm guilty of
"No," Moore said. "Not that I'm aware of, no."
Later, Moore added , "There's no investigation by us ... or anybody
I'm aware of."
What Moore meant, Herberg said in an interview, is that the police
are not suspects because the recanting eyewitness, Juan Moreno, who has
been interviewed by the DA's office since the case was reopened, has
publicly claimed that police did anything illegal.
But the DA has said Moreno could be prosecuted for the unusual crime of
by perjury if he lied during Cantu's trial.
Ewell began contacting friends soon after the Chronicle and San Antonio
Express-News published investigations about new innocence claims in the
case in late November, recordings show. He called the outgoing SAPD
couple of deputy chiefs and the former judge in the Cantu trial, Roy
Jr., among others.
First of many conversations
Ewell, who has refused to give an interview about his role in the Cantu
gave his official sworn account to the DA's office Feb. 1.
The meeting introduced Ewell to Moore, who had joined the DA's office
years as an investigator with the state pharmacy board. Other calls
In one conversation, Moore described his informal interview with Garza,
the men who now claims Cantu was wrongly executed.
Garza was convicted at 15 of being Cantu's accomplice in the 1984
robbery of a Mexican-born contractor. He originally pleaded not guilty,
entered a guilty plea on the robbery charge but never testified about
Last year, Garza signed a sworn statement saying Cantu was innocent and
another teen as the killer. But when the DA's team went to interview
then in prison for an unrelated crime, he initially refused a
test, Moore told Ewell.
"We went down there and interviewed that little bastard," Moore,
told Ewell. " ... He's very anti-death penalty."
In an interview, Herberg said he understood Moore's low opinion of
"David Garza is an admitted Mexican Mafia member. He's an admitted
an admitted participant in a capital murder. He's a three-time
felon," Herberg said. "What would you call him? I would not call him a
Garza refused to cooperate with the DA's office when he was in prison
he claimed its investigators and prosecutors are biased.
Now out on parole, Garza gave an interview to the DA's office June 28
having been summoned to testify in front of a grand jury.
In another March conversation, Moore called Ewell to give him a
Herberg's direction. A Chronicle reporter had requested the DA's file
1981 robbery in which Ewell and others arrested two innocent people.
Moore told Ewell that reporters were "trying to smear you ... is what
like, trying to ... raise a bunch of doubt and all this stuff."
"Well, how does Judge Reed feel about me?" Ewell asked.
Moore again reassured him. "She doesn't pay any attention to that."
Reed refused to be interviewed for this report through Herberg, her
Defending the investigation
Instead, Herberg offered a nuanced defense of the investigators in a
two-and-a-half-hour interview about the recordings, which the
provided for his review.
Herberg said he agreed with most of what the investigators said but
their remarks as idle speculation that doesn't warrant public airing.
insisted that the investigation's outcome has not been predetermined
he acknowledged that some in the office may have a bias toward Cantu's
The investigators also have another predisposition: They're reluctant
believe ex-cons who, presumably, aim to discredit or abolish the death
penalty, he said.
"The problem with this article is it's going to make out this point
somehow this has been prejudged. ... We're looking at everything,"
stressed. "But we are adults, we do have a little experience here and
fall off the turnip truck yesterday."
He said officials have yet to speak to the most intriguing witness,
Unlike the others, Moreno isn't an ex-con. Instead, he's a shooting
visibly bears the scars of the attack and whose testimony put Cantu on
In the recorded conversations, investigators also dismissed Moreno as a
or speculated he'd been hoodwinked into recanting.
But Herberg insisted that no one's mind is made up.
"I hope, at least, the article conveys we understand the sensitivity of
investigation," he said. "I wish these (recordings) were not public. I
they had not occurred. But that said, the officers can do their job.
do their job."
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